Plugin coding guidelines

In addition to the Elgg Coding Standards, these are guidelines for creating plugins. Core plugins are being updated to this format and all plugin authors should follow these guidelines in their own plugins.

See also

Be sure to follow the Plugin skeleton for your plugin’s layout.

Use standardized routing with page handlers

  • Example: Bookmarks plugin

  • Page handlers should accept the following standard URLs:
    Purpose URL
    All page_handler/all
    User page_handler/owner/<username>
    User friends’ page_handler/friends/<username>
    Single entity page_handler/view/<guid>/<title>
    Add page_handler/add/<container_guid>
    Edit page_handler/edit/<guid>
    Group list page_handler/group/<guid>/owner
  • Include page handler scripts from the page handler. Almost every page handler should have a page handler script. (Example: bookmarks/all => mod/bookmarks/views/default/resources/bookmarks/all.php)

  • Pass arguments like entity guids to the resource view via $vars in elgg_view_resource().

  • Call elgg_gatekeeper() and elgg_admin_gatekeeper() in the page handler function if required.

  • The group URL should use views like resources/groups/*.php to render pages.

  • Page handlers should not contain HTML.

Use standardized page handlers and scripts

  • Example: Bookmarks plugin
  • Store page functionality in mod/<plugin>/views/default/resources/<page_handler>/<page_name>.php
  • Use elgg_view_resource('<page_handler>/<page_name>') to render that.
  • Use the content page layout in page handler scripts: $content = elgg_view_layout('content', $options);
  • Page handler scripts should not contain HTML
  • Call elgg_push_breadcrumb() in the page handler scripts.
  • No need to worry about setting the page owner if the URLs are in the standardized format
  • For group content, check the container_guid by using elgg_get_page_owner_entity()

The object/<subtype> view

  • Example: Bookmarks plugin

  • Make sure there are views for $vars['full_view'] == true and $vars['full_view'] == false

  • Check for the object in $vars['entity'] . Use elgg_instance_of() to make sure it’s the type entity you want. Return true to short circuit the view if the entity is missing or wrong.

  • Use the new list body and list metadata views to help format. You should use almost no markup in these views.

  • Update action structure - Example: Bookmarks plugin.

  • Namespace action files and action names (example: mod/blog/actions/blog/save.php => action/blog/save)

  • Use the following action URLs:
    Purpose URL
    Add action/plugin/save
    Edit action/plugin/save
    Delete action/plugin/delete
  • Make the delete action accept action/<handler>/delete?guid=<guid> so the metadata entity menu has the correct URL by default


Actions are transient states to perform an action such as updating the database or sending a notification to a user. Used correctly, actions provide a level of access control and prevent against CSRF attacks.

Actions require action (CSRF) tokens to be submitted via GET/POST, but these are added automatically by elgg_view_form() and by using the is_action argument of the output/url view.

Action best practices

Action files are included within Elgg’s action system; like views, they are not regular scripts executable by users. Do not boot the Elgg core in your file and direct users to load it directly.

Because actions are time-sensitive they are not suitable for links in emails or other delayed notifications. An example of this would be invitations to join a group. The clean way to create an invitation link is to create a page handler for invitations and email that link to the user. It is then the page handler’s responsibility to create the action links for a user to join or ignore the invitation request.

Consider that actions may be submitted via XHR requests, not just links or form submissions.

Directly calling a file

This is an easy one: Don’t do it. With the exception of 3rd party application integration, there is not a reason to directly call a file in mods directory.